Become familiar with electronics, which is a key part of the technician's job. There are numerous books and Web sites on electronics and electronic theory, geared to various levels of expertise. Check with your high school or local public library to see what you can find on this topic. In addition, many hobby shops or specialty science stores have electronics kits and experiments that provide hands-on experience with how electronic circuits work.
To find out more about wireless communications specifically, you might again check for books or magazine articles on the subject through an online search as well as in local libraries. You might also contact a wireless provider in your area and ask to talk with a cell technician about their job.
Wireless service technicians are sometimes also called cell site technicians, field technicians, or cell site engineers. These workers maintain cell sites—which consist of a radio tower and computerized equipment. Each cell site covers a geographic territory that varies in size. When someone places a wireless call within a particular cell site's geographic territory, radio waves are transmitted to that cell site's antenna. The antenna picks up the radio waves and transmits them through cables to computerized equipment that is typically located in a building adjacent to the antenna. This equipment then reads the radio waves, turns them into a computerized code, and sends the information on to a switching center. The call is then transferred to its destination—which might be another wireless phone or a traditional wireline phone.
The equipment at each cell site—the antenna and computerized equipment—are important pieces of the wireless telecommunications network. If a cell site stops functioning for some reason, wireless users within that site's coverage area may not be able to use their mobile phones. Many people rely on these devices to receive or transmit important or emergency information, so a lapse in coverage can be serious. Wireless service technicians are responsible for maintaining and troubleshooting the equipment and operations of the cell sites. The data transmission equipment may be a separate, peripheral part of the cell site equipment, and the technician is responsible for maintaining it as well.
Wireless service technicians typically perform both routine, preventive maintenance and troubleshooting of equipment that has malfunctioned. Routine maintenance might include scheduled visits to each cell site to check power levels and computer functions. Technicians often carry laptop computers, which contain sophisticated testing software. They connect their laptop computers to the cell site equipment to test equipment and ensure it is functioning correctly. Wireless carriers may also have backup equipment, such as generators and batteries, at their cell sites to ensure that even if the primary system fails, wireless coverage is still maintained. Technicians may periodically check this backup equipment to make sure it is functional and ready to be used in case of emergency.
In addition to maintaining the actual cell site computer equipment, wireless service technicians may be responsible for routine and preventive maintenance of the radio tower itself and the building and grounds of the site. Technicians do not perform the actual physical maintenance on the tower and grounds themselves. Rather, they contract with other service providers to do so and are then responsible for ensuring that the work meets appropriate standards and is done when needed.
The frequency of the scheduled visits to individual cell sites depends on the technician's employer and the number of sites the technician is responsible for. For example, a technician who is responsible for 10 to 15 sites might be required to visit each site monthly to perform routine, preventive maintenance. These sites may be close together—perhaps within blocks of each other. In less populated areas the sites may be more than 20 miles apart.
When cell site equipment malfunctions, wireless service technicians are responsible for identifying the problem and making sure that it is repaired. Technicians run diagnostic tests on the equipment to determine where the malfunction is. If the problem is one that can be easily solved—for example, by replacing a piece of equipment—the technician handles it. If it is something more serious, such as a problem with the antenna or with the local wireline telecommunications system, the technician calls the appropriate service people to remedy the situation.
In addition to routine maintenance and troubleshooting responsibilities, wireless service technicians may have a range of other duties. They may test the wireless system by driving around the coverage area while using a mobile phone. They may work with technicians in the switching center to incorporate new cell sites into the network and make sure that the wireless calls are smoothly transmitted from one cell to another.